How to Write a Bibliography


Hints for writing your bibliography:


  • As you research keep a record of all sources used.
  • There are many different kinds of sources. Decide what type each of your resources is. (book, website, encyclopedia, etc)
  • We use the MLA formating style.
  • Use a compiler such as Easy Bib or Citation Machine which will help you put citation parts in the correct order and with correct punctuation.
  • Put citations in alphabetical order by the first word (generally the author’s last name
  • The first line of each citation begins at the left margin and any other lines are indented. This is the opposite of a paragraph and is called a hanging indenture.
  • Authors’ names are written last name comma first name. Exception: if there is more than one author, only the first author is written last name, first name. All others are written in the normal order (first last).
  • If you cannot find the author of a source just leave it out and start the citation entry with the title.
  • Book, magazine, encyclopedia and website titles should be italicized.
  • Dates are written Day Month (spelled out) Year without punctuation (11 November 2008).



Sample Bibliography:




(Internet image or film: page, image or clip title, Website title, Web, date visited, URL.)

"Brady Portrait of Abraham Lincoln and Tad." The Library of Congress: American Memory. Web. 20 Nov 2009. < cgi- bin/query/D?scsmbib:32:./temp/~ammem_PsCs::>.


(Print encyclopedia: author, article title, encyclopedia title, edition, volume:pages, place of publication, publisher, copyright date.)

Boritt, Gabor S. "Lincoln, Abraham." World Book. 2004. 12:310-326. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 2003.


(Book: author, title, place of publication, publisher, copyright date.)

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: a Photobiography. New York: Clarion Books, 1987.


(Newspaper print: author, article title, newspaper title, newspaper date, section, page.)

Holzer, Harold. "Lincoln's Early Years." New York Times. 8 February 1998: Sec. 5, p. 8.


(Interview: person interviewed, title, Personal Interview, date of interview.)

Hunt, Harry Draper. Professor of History. Personal Interview, 13 March 2003.


(Online encyclopedia: author, article title, encyclopedia title, publisher, copyright date, Web, date visited, URL) 

"Lincoln, Mary Todd." Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2009  <>.


(Webpage: author, page title, website title, copyright date, Web, date visited, URL.)

Norton, Robert. "Abraham Lincoln's Beard." The Abraham Lincoln Research Site. 1996. Web. 20 Nov 2009. <>.


(Print magazine: author, article title, magazine title, magazine date, pages.)

Philip, Cynthia Owen. "Lincoln's Doctor's Dog." American Heritage. June 2003: 70-71.


(Online magazine from MARVEL databases. This citation can be obtained  complete from the database page and includes: article title, magazine title, volume.issue (year of publication):page, database title, publisher, Web, date accessed, URL.)

"Secret Message Found in Lincoln's Watch." American History. 44.3 (2009): 9. Middle Search Plus. EBSCO. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.